HISTORY OF INDIA
India is a country that leaves one spellbound with its alluring contrasts and striking features in all that it beholds! India is a 34,000 years old country with a rich legend and history. One is sure to get intermingled with the plaited knots of customary and contemporary ingredients of India. Where else will you experience spirituality and solitude than in the mystic land of the lords! The rich rituals, distinct culture of India, festivals and ceremonies that India celebrates, unfold its legendary sagas. Ancient India was a country that covered the territories of Pakistan, Bangladesh apart from the territory of current India. Ancient Indian history can be broadly divided into three ages namely the Bronze Age, Indus valley civilization and the Vedic age.
India got its independence on August 15th, 1947. It was the day when the Indians got liberated from the rule of the british. The entire freedom struggle involved a lot of political organizations, non-violents movements, philosophies and other acts. India got its independence after almost hundred years of struggle and bondage.
Religion in India is as diverse as its geography and culture. It comprises of world’s most ancient traditions and believes. In India, religion and culture play a very important role. Religion is an essential part of most Indians. India is bordered on the north by Nepal, Pakistan, China, and Bhutan. At one point, ‘Lands End’ at Kanyakumari, three seas meet – the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The sights, sounds, and scenery of India are unique and amazing with grandiose temples, lush paddy ⤀褅elds and stunning beaches. In the north, Shrub-land and desert create a sublime backdrop and a visit to the ‘Golden Triangle’ (Delhi/Agra/Jaipur/Delhi) will take your breathe away. It is divided into 26 states and 6 union territories, and has 17 major languages with 844 dialects, making this country and its people culturally diverse.
Sikkim, Darjeeling, Gangtok called the ‘Queen of Hills’ of the India. In a limited period of time you can visit most places of interest, the scenic beauty, the ⤀褅ora & fauna and the people and the rich cultural heritage of the this lost Himalayan Kingdom.
India is a land of varied culture, people and landscapes with hundreds of fairs and festivals all through the year. The country is so vast that it is often referred as an continent than a country.
In a cosmopolitan sub-continent like India in its incredible form, tourists and travelers discover a rich amalgamation of versatile customs and traditions, values and culture broadly categorized as north India culture holidays, south India culture holidays, east India culture holidays, west India culture holidays on the basis of lifestyle that people distinctly represent from their own regions. These variations of lifestyle are found among the people of India mainly because of its geographical diversity conditioned the entire way of life. However, the travelers will ⤀褅nd the changes in dialects, colors, clothing, food style, taste, habits, manners, behaviors, music and dance (specially of folk music) and many other living styles when they will pass by the inter-state boundaries while traveling by Indian railways or making car city tourism. So, the lifestyle of the people of India is very much conditioned by its geography representing Himalayan Regions from its northern side, Indian Ocean from its southern side, Arabian Ocean from its western side and Bay of Bengal from its eastern side.
It depends on the mood of travelers whether they are interested to take general overview of the lifestyle of the people of India or speci⤀褅c view of the people of India and their lifestyle. For general overview, travelers, while traveling to the famous travel destinations of India like south India, north India, east India and west India, they will automatically observe the variations of lifestyle while using things used in daily life but for the speci⤀褅c overview of the people of India, travelers have to interact with the local people professionally, keeping in mind the culture, traditions and values of the tourist destination.
Language is one of the principal sources of a person’s cultural identity. The Indian constitution acknowledges, for now, 18 o⤀ꀈcial Indian languages. But, almost each of these 18 languages of India, further include di⤀ㄆerent dialects or versions of that language changes from locality to locality and area to area. Besides these 18 languages of India, there are other languages which are acknowledged by the central government, but not as o⤀ꀈcial languages. There are several other languages in India which are spoken locally but they are not accredited by the central government. There are some states of India which are created on the basis of languages and are recognized by the constitution of India.
Some of the states whose boundaries are founded on the basis of languages are Kerala which is mainly dominated by the Malayalam speakers. The Indian state of Tamil Nadu is mostly dominated by the Tamil speakers. Karnataka is by those people who speak Kanadda.
The state of Andhra Pradesh came into existence for Telugu speakers. The western state of Maharashtra is meant for Marathi people. Orissa which is located in the eastern part of India mainly dominated by those people who speak the Oriya language. The Indian state of West Bengal is for Bengali speakers. Gujarat is dominated by the Gujarati speakers. Punjab is dominated by Punjabi speakers. Assam is dominated Assami speakers. However, most of states’ boundaries of India are demarcated on the lines of languages but still there are other states of India which were not formed on the basis of language boundaries and there are numerous other language speaker who don’t have their own state.
Some of the languages like Dogri, Ladacki and Kashmiri, languages of Sikkim, Nepali, Manipuri etc. which are spoken widely in those parts of India but are not recognized as the National Language of India. Besides these, there are numerous languages of India which are spoken by the tribes of India. While the travelers are making the tribal tourism in India, they will come di⤀ㄆerentiate the tribal languages of India. Konkani language is another famous language of India named after its region of the Konkan coast.
Despite the numerous languages and dialects in India, most of the languages recognized as o⤀ꀈcial have evolved a standard of speaking which has become the accepted style of speaking for that particular language. The best example is the national language of Hindi which is sometimes, completely di⤀ㄆerent from some of its dialects used di⤀ㄆerent parts of India.
As multi-lingual country, the di⤀ㄆerent states of India used di⤀ㄆerent o⤀ꀈcial languages according to their language convention and utility, some of which are not even recognized by the central government. There are some states which have more than one o⤀ꀈcial language. For example, the East Indian state of Bihar has two o⤀ꀈcial languages where Hindi is the ⤀褅rst o⤀ꀈcial language of the state and Urdu is declared as the second o⤀ꀈcial language.
ART AND CULTURE
The mother land of India is renowned for its art, culture and architecture holidays all over the world where all historical monuments of India seen in forts, palaces, caves, temples, mosques and churches, mausoleums and other historical buildings re⤀褅ect the past glory of India in which period the monuments were constructed. The art and culture holidays in India is in real sense of term an unforgettable travel to India during the exploration of which travelers got an opportunity to view the monuments of ancient India, medieval India, modern India and contemporary India starting from the most ancient monuments like Bhimbetka of Prehistoric era dating back to as early as c. 8000 BC – 3000 BC, the Sanchi Stupa, Taj Mahal during the medieval era of Indian history to the most intricate religious places of worship ever constructed – the Akshardham Temple in the capital city of India. All these arts of India are ⤀褅nely based on some concepts mostly revolve around the beauty, symmetry, color, curvaceous female form, legends and fascinations, gods, goddesses, lore and myths.
These arts of India are symbolized in the forms of ornamentation, paintings, sculptures and handicrafts. Broadly speaking, on the basis of evolution of Indian arts, it can be roughly classi⤀褅ed as Hindu art of India, temple art of India, ephemeral arts of India, Buddhist art of India, Jain art of India, folk art of India, Islamic art of India etc.Some of them are representing as the Heritage Sites of India and some of them as world Heritage Sites which are must visit historical places of India. However, Indian traditional arts are still seen in India in the form of Indian classical music, Indian classical dances, paintings of M. F. Hussain, Ravi Varma etc.
The Indian culture holidays are as vast and variant as the mosaic having the complex and variant colors to make of the place more beautiful. India is a nation of di⤀ㄆerent nationalities representing their own peculiar culture, tradition, religion, customs, castes, colour, ethos, behaviour, dialects and languages, regional di⤀ㄆerentiation, di⤀ㄆerent kind of cuisines, attires, creed and the diverse lifestyle yet united with each other with the common string of Indian Nationalism and making it one of the unique country in the world where the concept of Unity in Diversity is found in its best form on the one hand and the largest representative democracy on the planet on the other. The country where the major religions of the world – the Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism Wahabism etc. along with hundreds of tribal communities has no doubt become of the hub of culture holidays or culture tourism of India.
CULTURE OF INDIA
Indian culture is rich, diverse and unique in the whole world as the people in the country belong to di⤀ㄆerent religions, castes, creed; speak di⤀ㄆerent languages; enjoy di⤀ㄆerent kind of cuisines. People belonging to di⤀ㄆerent religions celebrate di⤀ㄆerent festivals with great enthusiasm and zeal.
The major religions followed within India are Hinduism (80%), Islam (14%), Christianity (2.4%), Sikhism (2%), Buddhism( 0.7%), Jainism (0.5%). The people belonging to di⤀ㄆerent ethnic groups are Indo-Aryans(72%), Dravidians (25%) and Others(3%). There are hundreds of tribal communities. There are about 1600 languages spoken throughout the country.
Indian culture is so diverse that it is very di⤀ꀈcult to explain it. Every region and every state has a culture and tradition of its own. Even in one single state di⤀ㄆerent communities follow di⤀ㄆerent customs. Every region has it own cuisine, clothing, language, etc. The appearances of the people too di⤀ㄆer from one another depending on the region one belongs to. The diverse climate and the diverse landscape too plays a major role in the diverse culture of India.
People belonging to di⤀ㄆerent regions celebrate di⤀ㄆerent festivals all round the year. Some of the important Hindu festivals celebrated are Holi, Diwali, Dussehra, Ganesh Utsav; Muslim festivals celebrated are Iid and Bakriid and the Christian festivals celebrated are Christmas, and Easter.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
It is possible to identify seasons, although these do not occur uniformly throughout South Asia. The Indian Meteorological Service divides the year into four seasons: the relatively dry, cool winter from December through February; the dry, hot summer from March through May; the southwest monsoon from June through September when the predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of the country; and the northeast, or retreating, monsoon of October and November.
You will experience a range of variations in the Indian climatic conditions. India has three major seasons – summers, winters and monsoon. The lines below will tell you about Indian weather in detail :
The summer season in India lasts from March to June. During summers, temperature can even go above average, causing unbearable heat. Another drawback of summers is the dustladen air that can hamper views. Many Indians, themselves, head to “hill stations” to get a relief from the extreme heat of the lowlands.
The winter season lasts from October to February. It is the best time to visit India. The weather is pleasant throughout the country with minimal rainfall in most places. It is the ideal time to enjoy the beauty of India.
The monsoon season lasts from July to September. Rains sweep across the country with heavy downpours. The drawback of this season is a high possibility of ⤀褅ooding in some areas. This makes it di⤀ꀈcult to travel around. Duration of monsoons may vary in di⤀ㄆerent regions by several weeks.
India is a land of diversity, even in religion. All the religions in India exist simultaneously and peacefully. Religion is an integral part of Indian customs and traditions. The oldest Indian religion to develop was Hinduism. Later on other religions developed. Apart from Hinduism, India is also the birthplace of another great religion, Buddhism. Also, Zoroastrianism and Jainism owe their birth to India itself. Sikhism is another very recognizable religion that began here. People following the religions that originated in other countries such as Islam, Christianity, Bahaism and Judaism also form a part of the Indian population.
At present, the dominant faith in India is Hinduism. The 2001 Census revealed the following facts about the percentage of various religions in India :
About 80.5% of the population of India practice Hinduism. It is one of the ancient religions in the world.
After Hindus, Muslims hold the second dominant position in India. The proportion of Muslims in this country is 13.4% Muslims (over 100 million).
Out of the total population of India, Christians constitute almost 2.3% (over 20 million)
About 1.9% (18 million) of India’s population consists of Sikhs.
Other Indian Religions
Rest of the population (less than 2%) includes Buddhists (6 million), Jains, Parsis (Zoroastrians), Jews and Bahais. Copyright